You can't tell if a snake is venomous just by looking at it unless you are familiar with the characteristics of different types of snakes. First of all, if you don't know, leave it alone. Second, even if you do know, leave it alone. The vast majority of all snakebites, venomous or otherwise, occur when someone tries to capture a snake. In the United States, there are 4 major types of venomous snakes: rattlesnakes, water moccasins, copperheads, and coral snakes. In other countries there are other kinds as well. But all snakes will bite if threatened. Get a good field guide with color pictures, written for the area you are exploring or visiting, before you head out.
Most people who are afraid have never seen a snake up close and are afraid of the terrible things they have heard about snakes. When they get a chance to see and touch a snake, as many people do here at the museum, they find out just how ridiculous some of the stories are. For example:
Pretty much the way all other vertebrates do. Snakes are all either male or female, though it may be hard to tell which is which unless you're trained, or unless you see the snakes in the act of mating. The male has two structures called hemipenes, either of which he may use in mating with the female. The female may either lay eggs (oviparous) or retain the eggs in her body until they hatch and the young emerge alive (ovoviviparous). Baby snakes are ready to go as soon as they are hatched or born. There is no parental care in terms of feeding, though the females of a few species may remain for a few days after hatching.
We do not ever recommend wild-caught pets. You may think you are being nice to an animal, but often you are condemning it to a slow death by starvation. An animal kept by itself will die without reproducing, leaving the species poorer. Unfortunately, keeping a wild animal as if it were a pet is most often cruel and abusive to the animal. If you really like turtles, or any other wildlife animal, we recommend that you forget treating them like pets and learn to value them as wildlife.
There are several organizations and people in the area who work to rehabilitate injured or ill animals and provide care as needed. Volunteering with these will give you the training you need to help wild animals without trying to turn them into pets. For more information, see Melissa Kaplan's page on Reptile Rescue Groups.
As house guests go, they're quiet, don't eat much, and never ask to be taken to the mall, so look on the bright side. Lizards come inside for several reasons:
Generally not, though lizards can and do bite when they are threatened The exceptions are two closely related species: the Gila monster and the beaded lizard. These live in the deserts of Arizona and Mexico (though they do not make it to the San Diego or Baja California areas). You can't mistake these lizards for anything else. They are big, heavy lizards with round scales like beads, and are patterned in orange and black. They will not chase people, but they can bite with great speed and strength when they are threatened. The bite is painful, and the venom is enough to make most people feel sick for a while. Never try to pick one up, as this is how most people get bitten.
No other lizards are venomous. Period. Their bites can hurt, though, so it's best to leave them alone.
Lizards shed their skins, but not like snakes. Snakes shed their old skins all at once, neatly turning the old skin inside out like the finger of a glove. Lizards lose their old skins in patches and can look very raggedy for a few days. Both snakes and lizards grow a new skin under the old one first, so they are never skinless. A snakeskin or lizard-skin belt or hatband is always made by killing and skinning an animal, never from the shed skin.
Probably not. Some lizards can lose their tails when a predator grabs them. The nerves and muscles in the tail continue to operate, making in flop around so that the predator will think that there is another prey animal right there. This often gives the lizard a chance to escape. It's no fun for the lizard, though. Many will grow new tails, though these are never as long or perfect as the ones they lost. Never ever try to catch a lizard by the tail.
No. You can get wet, though. Many toads will release a spray of urine when they are picked up (it's a way of repelling predators). The "warts" that toads have are not really warts, but are normal thick places on their skin. Warts that humans get are small tumors that are the result of viruses. There is no connection.
Frogs and toads are terms that originated in the United Kingdom to describe their frog diversity. In this part of the world, it is a simple difference. They have a frog and a toad species. So, the description of a typical "frog" and "toad" is regional. Toads are a type of frog and in many tropical areas Toad Family members look like a typical frog, with thin skin and live in moist habitats. Here in the United States, we have the typical "frog" and "toad" species, but we also have some examples of species that don't fit the mold (for example, Spadefoot Frogs, which are frogs that looks like a toads). all toads are FROGS, but not all frogs are toads. The terms "frog" and "toad" can be best thought of as descriptions of lifestyle... something that we call ecomorphology. Terrestrial adapted "toads" have waxy, glandular skin, short legs, and like to burrow. Aquatic "frogs" lack waxy skin glands, have longer legs for jumping and swimming, and live in or near water.
Lots. For one thing, they're not even closely related. A salamander is an amphibian, and a lizard is a reptile. Salamanders do not have scales, and lizards always do. About the only thing they have in common is the general shape of their bodies. Salamanders are very fascinating animals, but may be hard to find in this area except during rainy times. Some salamanders are completely lungless and depend completely on their skins for oxygen exchange. Larval salamanders resemble the adults, but have gills instead of lungs.